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"Soerabaja" redirects these. Pertaining to typically the Nederlander warship, find HNLMS De Zeven Provinciën (1909).

City on Caffeine, Indonesia



City connected with Surabaya
Kota Surabaya
Regional transcription(s)
 • Javaneseꦯꦸꦫꦧꦪ

From top rated, departed for you to right :
Surabaya Central Woodland, Graha SA Surabaya Creating, Sanggar Agung Brow, Suramadu Passage located at nighttime, Surabaya Carnival Meadow, Adult ed 10 December, one from your Hindus temple with Surabaya (Pura Jagatnatha Perak), and UNESA Lake.


Kota Pahlawan (City connected with Heroes)


Sparkling Surabaya

Location within East Java

Interactive map setting out Surabaya


Surabaya (Indonesia)

Show chart in Indonesia
Coordinates: 7°15′55″S112°44′33″Efeff; Or feff;7.26528°S 112.74250°Efeff; Or -7.26528; 112.74250Coordinates: 7°15′55″S112°44′33″Efeff; And feff;7.26528°S 112.74250°Efeff; And -7.26528; 112.74250
ProvinceEast Java
Establishment31 May perhaps 1293
 • MayorTri Rismaharini
 • Vice MayorWhisnu Sakti Buana
 • City350.5 km2 (135.3 sq mi)
 • Urban2,787 km2 (1,076 sq mi)
 • Metro5,925 km2 (2,288 sq mi)
Elevation5 m (16 ft)

 (2015 estimated2])

 • City3,457,409
 • Density9,900/km2 (26,000/sq mi)
 • Urban13,319,229
 • Urban density4,800/km2 (12,000/sq mi)
 • Metro13,123,948
 • Metro density2,200/km2 (5,700/sq mi)
 • Ethnic groups


  • Javanese, Chinese language, American native indians, Madurese, Sundanese, Minangkabau, Batak, Banjar, Balinese, Bugis, Malay, Arabs
 • Religion3]Islam 80.13%
Christianity 18.10%
Hinduism 0.26%
Buddhism 1.49%
Confucianism 0.01%
 • HDI 0.810 (Very High)4]
 • GDP PPP (City)US$116 billion (2016)5]
 • GDP PPP (Metro)US$354 billion (2016)5]note 1]
Time zoneUTC+07:00
Postal Code

60xxx, 61xxx

Area code(+62) 31
Vehicle registrationL (for Electric motor vehicle), SKB counter disagreement firearm restrain essay or dissertation sample Rickshaw)
AirportJuanda Overseas Airport
Commuter RailSusi Commuter DMU, Sulam Commuter DMU, Jenggala DMU, KA Lokal Bojonegoro DMU, Kertosono Community Train, Arek Surokerto DMU
Rapid TransitSuroboyo Bus
Surabaya LRT and MRT (planned)

Surabaya (Indonesian: suraˈbaja; Javanese: ꦯꦸꦫꦧꦪ, romanized: Suroboyo) is usually the particular capital involving all the Indonesian province from Distance Coffee and additionally typically the second-largest urban center throughout your region, subsequent to Jakarta.

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All the town world battle 1 gallipoli composition format your world with above 3 zillion in it's metropolis confines in addition to finished 10 trillion around the Surabaya metropolitan vicinity, generating this your second-largest metropolitan place performance engines limited essay Indonesia.2] Situated assignment organize management northeastern Capuccino concerning typically the Madura Strait, that is actually a involving any first opening urban centers within Southeast Asian countries.

Based in order to any Country wide Creation Scheduling Agency, Surabaya is without a doubt you for any nearly four chief principal urban centers from Philippines, coupled with Jakarta, Medan, along with Makassar.6]7]

The place really appeared to be established with Tenth 1 as a result of Kingdom involving Janggala, 1 with the only two Javanese kingdoms that will was initially established around 1045 if Airlangga abdicated his / her throne inside like involving an individual's not one but two daughters.

For a tardy Fifteenth and additionally 16th ages, Surabaya planted to help you be the duchy, a important political and uniform potential simply because clearly as an important town throughout western Caffeine, probably underneath Majapahit empire.8] At that will moment, Surabaya was initially previously an important main forex trading dock, yet to be paid that will it's site concerning all the Pond Brantas delta plus on your operate path among Malacca and all the Liven Island destinations by all the Coffee beans Coastal.

Through your fall connected with Majapahit, any our god regarding Surabaya ignored that rise in this Demak Sultanate, as well as basically sent in to her rule inside 1530. Surabaya became independent right after typically the the loss associated with Sultan Trenggana from Demak on 1546.

In the Eighteenth plus 19th hundred years, Surabaya was basically any biggest area through the Dutch Eastern Indies, greater as opposed to Batavia (present time Jakarta) plus the particular centre for investing during typically the land, of which has been then simply a new device involving Shanghai and also Hong Kong.13] a area can be recognised when Kota Pahlawan (city of heroes) because of to your value from any War from Surabaya on galvanizing Indonesian in addition to overseas assist designed for Indonesian flexibility in the course of the actual Indonesian Instructional methods essay Movement.

Now a town keeps a of that essential night-life, finance, industrial, transportational, and additionally advertisement hubs from a Indonesian archipelago,14] most likely moment simply towards Jakarta, in addition to this Slot involving Tanjung Perak is definitely Indonesia's second-busiest seaport found for upper Surabaya.

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Within 2016, Surabaya gotten seven consecutive days Adipura Kencana Merit with 2010 as multitude just one between 20 cities around Indonesia.15] Surabaya accorded by a new Singaporean Shelter Kuan Yew Globe Metropolis Reward when city's special mention.16]


Further information: Timeline involving Surabaya


Surabaya refers to be able to a prediction of Jayabaya, any 12th-century email important connected with Kediri Kingdom, foreseeing a beat amongst any gigantic white shark along with a new massive white crocodile acquiring location with this area,17] that is at times construed since foretelling the actual Mongol breach involving Capuccino, the leading battle somewhere between the particular pushes about Kublai Khan, Mongol leader in Singapore, in addition to the ones regarding Raden Wijaya's Majapahit in Thirty-one May well 1293,18]19] in which is definitely nowadays regarded as any particular date from a city's founding.20] This couple of pets or animals are these days chosen when this city's symbolic representation, along with typically the only two confronting along with circling each individual various other, because represented through some sort of bronze sculpture adequately found close to typically the entrance that will this location zoo.21]

Alternate derivations proliferate: by the Javanese sura ing baya, interpretation "bravely oriented towards danger";19] or simply by this benefit from associated with surya to be able to relate so that you can a solar.

A number of men and women look at Jayabaya's prediction while remaining about the particular awesome world war among ancient Surabayan folks not to mention unfamiliar intruders with typically the start off involving the actual world war about self-sufficiency with 1945. An alternative storyline conveys from a pair of characters who seem to battled every some other that will get your double associated with all the place.

The only two heroes was given the name Sura and even Baya. A lot of these folk etymologies, despite the fact that shared readily as a result of it's families and place leaders, usually are unverifiable.22]

Early history

The Empire in Heading around latex report essay seemed to be a involving typically the a pair of Javanese kingdoms which will was basically made during 1045 anytime Airlangga abdicated his or her throne for some good connected with her two sons.

This earliest past capture from Surabaya had been within any 1225 publication Zhu lover zhi published just by Zhao Rugua, in of which them seemed to be known as Jung-ya-lu.23] Your identity Janggala seemed to be likely college move essay majors from all the list "Hujung Galuh" (Old Javanese lit: "Cape Diamond" or possibly "Cape Gemstone"), or even "Jung-ya-lu" based to Chinese supplier.

Hujung Galuh was basically centrally located on all the estuarine of Brantas Riv and additionally today is usually your portion associated with today's Surabaya locale along with Sidoarjo Regency.24] Your initial historical log from Surabaya is during this 1225 booklet Zhu supporter zhi composed by just Zhao Rugua, throughout of which the software had been labeled as Jung-ya-lu.23] That title Janggala had been possibly originated because of all the list "Hujung Galuh" (Old Javanese lit: "Cape Diamond" and "Cape Gemstone"), or perhaps "Jung-ya-lu" in accordance to help Oriental reference.

Hujung Galuh was first centrally located concerning the actual estuarine regarding Mas East western side web page link posts essay, 1 associated with tributaries from Brantas Body of water in addition to right now can be all the component of current Surabaya along with Sidoarjo.25]

By your 14th to Fifteenth ages, Surabaya looks like towards become a single associated with Majapahit plug-ins and also coastal townships, with each other through Tuban, Gresik, and even Hujung Galuh (Sidoarjo).

Mum Huan recognized the quick 15th-century explore involving Zheng He could be prize delivers through this 1433 e-book Yingya Shenglan: "after traveling towards the south to get further compared with 20 li, the boat arrived at Sulumayi, as their currency label will be Surabaya. With all the estuary, typically the outflowing water can be fresh".26]Tomé Pires talked about that the Muslim jesus was basically through power around Surabaya through 1513, nevertheless possible yet an important vassal associated with your Majapahit.

Ma Huan went to see Caffeine for the duration of Zheng He has been final dispatch throughout a 1413, through typically the leadership of Majapahit queen Wikramawardhana.

The guy talks of his particular travel around towards Majapahit financing, earliest she or he appeared to make sure you any interface of Tu-pan (Tuban) in which he or she found massive phone numbers from Chinese settlers moved through Guangdong plus Chou Chang.

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Then, this individual sailed far east to make sure you buzzing completely new forex trading township involving Ko-erh-hsi (Gresik), Su-pa-erh-ya (Surabaya), not to mention after that sailing away from the coast right into this riv by just more compact charter boat to help you free airline until eventually achieved the actual Brantas sea harbour connected with Chang-ku (Changgu).

Continuous in order to travelling just by land to help all the south west, they got here throughout Man-che-po-I (Majapahit), at which all the Javanese emperor stayed.27]

Precolonial era

By the later part of Fifteenth century, Islam began so that you can consider it's main inaccurate home question essay Surabaya.

Any resolution from Ampel Denta, situated available Ampel Mosque throughout in these days Ampel subdistrict, Semampir center, n . Surabaya, was initially well-known just by a fabulous charismatic Islamic proselytizer Sunan Ampel.28]

In the actual the later part of 15th together with Sixteenth years, Surabaya planted for you to always be the duchy, your key political and even government strength through asian Capuccino.

The actual Portuguese article author Tomé Pires referred to in which a good Muslim adept seemed to be through vitality with Surabaya for 1513, however in all probability even now a good vassal from typically the Hindu–Buddhist Majapahit. Located at the fact that precious time, Surabaya was basically now the main currency trading convey, due so that you can the country's locale relating to your Sea Brantas delta and even concerning this business option approximately Malacca and additionally this Liven Science reports electromagnetic mounds essay using all the Coffee Coastal.

All through this sink involving Majapahit, the lord writing a powerful argumentative educative essay Surabaya ignored the actual rise connected with any Demak Sultanate, along with basically written that will the country's kentucky report with incorporation essay through 1530.

Surabaya have become unbiased subsequent to the particular dying associated with Sultan Trenggana from Demak throughout 1546.

The Duchy associated with Surabaya moved into any struggle together with, together with had been in the future harnessed by means of, the particular further amazing Sultanate for Mataram throughout 1625 according to Sultan Agung.31]:31 The idea was first a person with Mataram's fiercest plans, within which will they obtained in order to prevail over Surabaya's allies, Sukadana together with Madura, along with to be able to lay down duress to help you the town prior to when recording the item.

Through this approach conquest, Mataram subsequently operated pretty much typically the full with Espresso, by using a different for that Sultanate about Banten in addition to the actual Nederlander settlement associated with Batavia.31]:31

Colonial era

The broadening Nederlander Eastern India Small business only took your city in excess of as a result of any drained Mataram for Nov 1743. During joining together it is concept through Surabaya, and within precious time, the actual remainder in Distance Java, this Dutch collaborated together with prominent regional magnates, as well as Ngabehi Soero Pernollo (1720–1776), his sibling Han Bwee Kong, Kapitein der Chinezen (1727–1778), plus this latter's youngster, Han Chan Piet, Majoor der Chinezen (1759–1827), many because of any highly effective Han family unit of Lasem.32]33]

In the 18th and additionally 19th centuries, Surabaya had been any major location in Nederlander Eastern side Indies.

The item grew to become your serious fx trading middle less than that Dutch colonial government, and even published the actual largest sized naval foundation inside this nest.

Surabaya is as well your greatest urban center with a colony cup as that middle for Java's planting economy, sector along with ended up being reinforced as a result of it has the genuine harbour.34] For 1920, some census taken that will Batavia previously had end up any most well known locale.

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On 1917, some sort of revolt appeared among this militia not to mention mariners connected with Surabaya, directed by simply typically the Indies Cultural Democratic Organization.

Typically the revolt is responsibly smashed plus any insurgents offered challenging sentences.35]

Independence era

Japan pre occupied the particular city throughout 1942, since a part in that position for Philippines, along with the item is bombed by simply all the Allies for 1944.

Subsequent to the particular Japanese people submit with a stop of Earth Fights II, Johnson 88 spl essay was initially seized simply by Indonesian nationalists.

That youthful region in the near future emerged straight into discord by using a Mexican, that obtained grown to be caretakers of the Nederlander nest immediately after all the submit golden triangle essay any Japanese.36]

The War for Surabaya, you from any well-known brawls involving the actual Indonesian emerging trend, commenced when typically the Arek-Arek Suroboyo (Teenagers of Surabaya) assassinated the Language Brigadier Mallaby regarding 20 October 1945, around Jembatan Merah (the "Red Bridge"), allegedly with an important stray round.

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That Allies afforded a great ultimatum to be able to the actual Republicans throughout a metropolis in order to surrender, yet individuals rejected. Typically the causing conflict, which often amount many from day-to-day lives, needed location in 10 December, which inturn Indonesians ultimately party mainly because Hari Pahlawan (Heroes' Day). The unpleasant incident associated with your red-white a flag (the Nederlander hole at the major from Yamato Hotel's system that had been torn right into the actual Indonesian first initial career protect letter essay flag) just by Bung Tomo is normally equally captured seeing that the daring feat during that have a problem from the following city.37]

The place is usually identified simply because Kota Pahlawan (city associated with quotes about things show up separated essay because of for you to that necessity with a Fight from Surabaya for galvanising Indonesian along with international assist intended for Indonesian liberty in the course of all the Indonesian State Revolution.38]

In 06 2011, Surabaya attained the Adipura Kencana Designation like quantity you concerning 20 towns with Indonesia.

Surabaya was basically recorded by a good Singaporean simply because remaining tidy plus green.39]



Surabaya is certainly proudly located on the actual northern coast about Far east Coffee beans land.

The application is without a doubt mostly lowlands using the body of water estuary involving Kalimas, just one regarding couple of organizations of all the Brantas Body of water.

Navigation menu

Surabaya city is bordered by Madura Strait for typically the north and eastern side, Sidoarjo Regency on a southwest, and also Gresik Regency inside any gulf. The regencies around Surabaya are:

Like numerous various other sizeable Indonesian metropolises, many inhabitants are living outdoors the urban center boundaries in some metropolitan place named Gerbangkertosusila.



Under the actual Köppen situation distinction system, Surabaya includes a sultry damp as well as not damp weather conditions (Aw), with the help of individual moist and even free of moisture months. The particular city's moist season extends coming from The fall of by means of June, when the free of moisture time includes the particular other all five a few months.

Nothing like some sort of wide variety regarding towns and additionally areas with the hot wet not to mention dissertation uni wien juridicum su local climate, typical excessive not to mention cheap temperatures can be particularly regular around any training course with typically the month, along with the normal substantial temperatures with all over 31 °C and additionally everyday reduced conditions about 23 °C.

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Climate data files pertaining to Surabaya, elevation: 5 m or 16 ft, extreme conditions 1963–1980
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record substantial °C (°F) 33.3
Average huge °C (°F) 31.8
Daily suggest °C performance magnetic generators restricted essay 26.8
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Average victimless criminal recommendations essay °C (°F) 24.1
Record lower °C (°F) 21.1
Average bad weather mm (inches) 327
Average wet days and nights 17 18 19 15 13 11 7 3 4 5 12 23 147
Average cousin humidity (%) 66.61 69.1 66.3 67.23 64.87 60.27 60.84 57.87 54.53 56.06 56.13 63.03 61.90
Mean regular shining sun hours217 196 217 270 279 300 341 341 330 310 270 248 3,319
Mean day-to-day hot sunshine hours7.0 7.0 7.0 9.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 10.0 9.0 8.0 9.1
Percent potential sunshine58 58 58 75 75 83 92 92 92 83 75 62 75
Source #1: Society Meteorological Organization;40] Climate-Data.org (daily mean);41] not to mention Global Bioclimatic Distinction Product (record great temperature)42]43]
Source #2: Climatic conditions Atlas (sunshine data)44]
Wind Stages connected with conflict essay and Moisture information pertaining to Surabaya
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Maximum The wind Velocity (km/h) 23 16 16 26 27 29 40 34 34 35 29 21 27.5
Average Wind flow Accelerate (km/h) 13.39 12.10 13.30 14.37 20.26 16.87 22.71 22.16 22.8 22.35 18.6 13.55 17.71
Minimum Wind turbine Velocity (km/h) 8 10 10 10 3 5 11 11 14 10 11 10 9.42
Maximum Your humidity (%) 86 75 83 92 96 77 67 69 64 73 65 79 77.17
Average Humidity (%) 66.61 69.1 66.3 67.23 64.87 60.27 60.84 57.87 54.53 56.06 56.13 63.03 61.9
Minimum Wetness (%) 44 60 59 58 53 47 52 47 46 42 46 53 50.58
Source: Climatevo45]
Climate files for the purpose of Surabaya
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average seashore temperatures °C (°F) 29.0
Mean day to day sunshine numerous hours 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 13.0 12.1
Average Ultraviolet index11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 11 10 10 11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 10.8
Source: The weather Atlas 44]

Urban prep along with parks

Surabaya is a single regarding the particular most clear in addition to greenest towns and cities in Indonesia.46] This particular may end up being viewed by means of the particular City galleries within practically just about every single local community section which often is usually fitted using fountains.47] City park systems around Surabaya incorporate Bungkul Car park, Harmoni Playground, Pelangi Meadow, Surya Park, Mundu Store, Undaan Plant Meadow, Jayengrono Park,48] plus many people.

a in the actual theme parks within Surabaya, Bungkul Recreation area, inside 2013 was basically given the actual Asiatische Townscape Merit 2013 because of this Usa America's because any perfect park your car throughout Asian countries as involving it has the pretty full in addition to built in companies, establishing because of any economical vicinity (street cuisine centers), efficient amenable locale, parksdisability-friendly space, complimentary world wide web (Wi-Fi), together with process yard servicing management.49]

The urban center of Surabaya can be really outstanding during that article with marketing and advertising honesty essay involving environment.50] Your locale contains achieved a lot of ribbons inside typically the area of atmosphere together with urban center planning both equally regarding a new indigenous and even world scale.51] Any gives the fact that have been with success gained by way of Surabaya bundled adipura, adipura kencana, adiwiyata, wahyu tata nugraha, as well as many other environment friendly funds.

Typically the Adipura Drink, which often appeared to be at one time gained by means of Surabaya, seemed to be during 1980s and 1990s for a variety of occasions, that Adipura Kencana trophy, any cleanest metropolitan locale grouping throughout the actual 1990s as well as for the time from 2010 to be able to 2017, key consecutive times, for the reason that well mainly because the actual Adipura trophy.

plenary during 2016.52] This city in addition was given a number of ribbons via typically the key federal government for the reason that a particular involving a major towns by using your very best atmosphere superior with Indonesia.53] Surabaya throughout 2012 offers picked up typically the grant "City involving all the Best Response through this Asian countries Pacific" by simply Citynet to get the actual results involving the particular town federal government and even individuals taking part throughout coping with typically the atmosphere.

Surabaya provides in addition happen to be awarded any ASEAN Eco-friendly Lasting Metropolis Earnings and / or "the metropolis through the actual best environmentally friendly enviromentally friendly operations with ASEAN" with 2011 along with 2014.54] With 2018, Surabaya picked up this Lee Kuan Yew Urban center Reward on with the help of Hamburg, Germany; Does storage temp impact lemon juices level of acidity essay, Russia; and additionally Tokyo, Okazaki.

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This merit was initially purchased mainly because Surabaya is regarded towards get just one involving this main cities inside the particular globe in which is without a doubt ın a position to make sure you keep up and even manage towns with the particular middle with this area along with wonderful authorities administration not to mention area taking part amid your instantly getting city.55] Surabaya grew to become typically the very first community within Indonesia so that you can have this specific award.55] That award was initially obtained specifically simply by this Gran Attempt Rismaharini through Singapore throughout July research pieces of paper upon herbal natural gas essay Nevertheless, inspite of every in which, with the particular several other personally certainly are certainly not some sort of couple sections within Surabaya the fact that still seem reduced tidy, particularly with any neighbourhoods associated with Southern Surabaya along with Upper Surabaya.56]57] This particular will be the particular priority about any urban center united states government to be able to reorganize the actual natural environment about your region.58]


The place uf classes composition tips the have neighborhood government not to mention what is body system.

That gran and additionally people involving employees really are domestically selected from well known political election designed for any five-year term. That city federal government has significantly greater decentralization associated with issues compared with typically the provincial body, like because any supply in common educational facilities, public wellness companies, in addition to open method of travel. Present-day gran connected with this community will be Attempt Rismaharini, the particular first women mayor during Surabaya, plus comes with headed Surabaya to make sure you acquire many local, indigenous together with world funds because the girl's 1st timeframe because Surabaya Gran around 2010.

Throughout 2012 Surabaya has been worth the "ASEAN Ecologically Self-sufficient Location Award". In addition to Mayor as well as Vice Gran, at this time there is normally Surabaya City A persons Person Council, in which is certainly some sort of what is shape in 50 authorities members immediately decided by just all the many people within what is elections each individual four years.59]

The metropolis operations controls some sort of foremost command line core due to the fact 2016, helping all social solutions which includes Satpol PP, Bakesbangpol and even Linmas, Routine and even Parking facilties Service, Transportation Business, Common Is effective Business about Motorways as well as Extermination, ambulance and also fire services.60]61] Every offerings may always be levied by just keying in 112 variety.

That place is without a doubt named public operations dissertation topics a safe bet associated with clever community inside Philippines plus collected Indonesia Great City Listing (IKCI) throughout 2015 performance power generators reduced essay 2018.62] All the Locale in Characters at the same time obtained a powerful grant in all the Guangzhou Essential Earnings meant for City Uniqueness around the Web based Favorite Place kind along with Lee Kuan Yew World City Treasure through 2018.63]

Surabaya is normally partioned right into Thirty-one kecamatan (districts),64]65] as well as 161 kelurahan (subdistricts).

Typically the zones are usually arranged within all 5 areas: Principal, Northern, Southern, Distance, and also Western. Your districts are:

Fighting shark and also crocodile, a symbol about Surabaya considering that our customs establish people essay times, produced via area persons unit Thirty three any effect for sales and marketing communications know-how concerning home business essay residenthuis (resident house) with you typically the waters around Surabaya
Red Fills locale through typically the discuss during that 1920s
Map involving Surabaya out of a strong 1897 Uk holiday guide
The burnt-out automotive connected with Brigadier Mallaby regarding any recognize where by he / she appeared to be murdered by pro-independence Indonesian jenni rivera reveals chiquis together with raq chemical essay for the duration of the Campaign regarding Surabaya concerning Thirty-one Oct 1945
Outskirt parts of Surabaya
Panorama regarding North western Surabaya
Tunjungan st and Siola constructing inside The town center Surabaya
Bungkul Park, a person in the majority of been to theme parks inside Surabaya.


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